Kanal X (Channel X) in the Haus der Demokratie (House of Democracy) in the occupied district headquarters of the East German Communist Party on March 15, 1990, three days before the People's Chamber elections. The channel would broadcast programming intermittently.  It is the first pirate television station in the history of the GDR and the former Soviet Bloc.


Pirate TV in Eastern Europe. By Evelyn Messinger

Beyond Public Diplomacy By David Hoffman, Foreign Affairs magazine, March/April 2002 [link to text]

The Russian (Media) Revolution,  Andrew Meier in Wired Magazine, 1995:

Tiny Television – Against the Odds, Pirate TV Banishes Barriers Evelyn Messinger in The Nation, Nov 29, 1999